M e s t r a d o
M e s t r a d o
 
Gestão e Conservação da Natureza
Universidade de Glamorgan, Grã-Bretanha
2002-2003
Mestrado obtido com mérito  
Para mais detalhes sobre as cadeiras, clique nos nomes das cadeiras para ver a descrição abaixo (em inglês). Cadeiras Grau
PH4S80 - Introduction to Conservation P
PH4S82 - Environmental Modelling for Conservation PD
PH4S87 - Terrestrial Conservation P
PH4S88 - Freshwater Conservation P
PH4S89 - Environmental Pollution Management P
PH4S90 - Tropical Environmental Field Ecology P
PH4T86 - MSC Project PM

PH4S80 - Introduction to Conservation

Aims of the Module
The aim of the module is to enable students to:
1. Identify and evaluate the importance of scientific concepts and principles underlying environmental conservation.
2. Analyse the role of existing environmental conservation management frameworks, and to judge to what extent they enable conservation measures to be implemented.

Synopsis of Module Content:
Relevance of population sciences to species and habitat conservation. Population dynamics - minimal viable populations, inbreeding and outbreeding, homogenous and heterogenous populations. Population vulnerability analysis. Fragile and robust ecosystems. Rarity definition and measurement. Fragmentation and edge effects. Diversity and similarity indices. Techniques to evaluate the conservation values of species and habitats. Island biogeography theory and conservation. Sustainable development and wise use strategies in conservation.
Principles of organisational management. Scientific, human and neo-human theories of management. Organisational structures. Management styles. McKinsey’s seven S’s. Principles of public administration.
Environmental economics. Gross Domestic Product: the uses and abuses of using GDP as an indicator of conventional wealth. Application of GDP to measure non-material wealth. The human health index and national accounting systems that consider environmental costs. Marginal costs, marginal revenues and marginal benefits. The Polluter Pays Principle and emissions trading. Carbon taxes: What basis should be used? Own and cross elasticities of demand, switching costs, the usefulness of taxation in changing demand. Economic considerations associated with coastal change, sea-level rise, etc. Cost-Benefit analysis in environmental management.
The English Legal System. Introduction to Environmental Law and policies. The Environment Agency and other enforcement bodies. Roles of DETR and NGOs. Integrated Pollution Control. The Pollution Prevention and Control Act 1999 and associated legislation. Fiscal policies - BATNEEC, BAT, BPEO. Air, water, waste pollution. Landfill and contaminated land. Common Law tortious liability. Statutory and public nuisances. Planning policies and law. Nature conservation law and biodiversity. MARPOL and other marine/coastal legislation. Sustainable development. European and International Law. European Environmental Law. International Wildlife Law. Status of Antarctica.
Nature and society. Applied ethics to environmental management. The tragedy of the commons, lifeboat ethics, rights of future generations. Rise of environmentalism. Animal rights. Speciesism.

Teaching Methods: Lectures, practicals, fieldwork, debating with peer review.

Learning Outcomes: On completion students will be able to:
1. Apply advanced concepts in ecology and ecosystem dynamics to practical problems of conservation biology.
2. Critically discuss and appraise key concepts of environmental conservation, legislation, economics and organisational management.

Assessment Requirements:
Final Examination (3 hours) 50%
Continuous Assessment 50%


PH4S82 - Environmental Modelling for Conservation

Aims of the Module:
1. To provide advanced knowledge of the uses of Environmental Modeling in Conservation Management.
2. To provide appropriate practical skills in data collection and manipulation.

Synopsis of Module Content:
Introduction to remote sensing. History and scope of remote sensing. Introduction to properties of Electromagnetic radiation. Image acquisition techniques. Photographic sensors and digital sensors. Image interpretation. Land observation satellites. Active microwave. Thermal radiation. Image resolution. Image classification and analysis. Ocean satellite remote sensing. Applications in conservation management of terrestrial and marine environments. LiDar data and coastal change analysis. Sonar, side-scan sonar and bathymetric analysis. Introduction to, and review of metadata strategies and tools. Principles of geodesy, surveying, cartography. Map projections. Introduction to datums.
Characterisation of pollution problems and the legal limits associated with pollution of water, air and soil. Validity of analytical measurements, quality control and assurance. Analysis from the viewpoint of the consumer in conservation.
Use of statistical software for parametric and non-parametric analysis, correlation, regression, ANOVA analysis.
Theoretical review and practical use of Differential Global Positioning Systems. Types of GPS signal and their interpretation. Use of DGPS in animal tracking and conservation. Introduction to Geographical Information Systems and their use in environmental resource management. Introduction to fundamental characteristics of GIS. Review and use of major commercial GIS software packages. Data strategies in GIS. Spatial data structures. Visualization and query of spatial data. Use of GIS in analysis of ecological corridors and ecosystem fragmentation. Integration of GIS and DGPS data. Study of 3-D modeling techniques. Obtaining and manipulating Internet based data sets. Data import and export techniques. Introduction to, and use of relational databases.

Teaching Methods:
Lectures, Practicals.

Learning Outcomes:
After successfully studying this module, students will be able to:
1. Critically appraise the range and applicability of commercially available software.
2. Apply, evaluate and manipulate datasets relevant to conservation.

Assessment Requirements:
Continuous Assessment 100%


PH4S87 - Terrestrial Conservation

Aims of the Module:
1. To enable students to identify and evaluate the importance of scientific concepts and principles underlying terrestrial conservation
2. To enable students to analyse the major problems associated with terrestrial conservation and form judgements on the success of terrestrial conservation strategies

Synopsis of Module Content:
Conservation strategies: case studies of the UK, Antarctica. Protected areas, types, effectiveness. Techniques to evaluate the conservation values of species and habitats. Definitions of rarity, types of rarity, island biogeography theory and conservation. Ex situ conservation – value, philosophy and critique.
Habitat restoration and creation. Choosing objectives and measurable criteria for restoration. Addressing the problems of disturbance and evaluation of the intensity of ecosystem dysfunction. Planning stages. Restoration strategies. Evaluation techniques.
Assessment of the impacts of agricultural systems on natural and semi-natural ecosystems; organic farming, permaculture, precision farming. Pollution from agricultural chemicals and effects on aquatic systems in terms of impacts on conservation and amenity. Review of conservation schemes and designations for reducing the effects of agriculture on ecosystems.
Site management planning. Functions of a management plan. Management plan formats. Review of management plans from a range of conservation organisations. The use of biological research, survey and monitoring. Implementation and monitoring strategies. Use of software in management plans. Use of Habitat Suitability Indices in management plans.
Techniques for evaluating ‘ecosystem health’. Ecosystem health goals and objectives. Ecosystem indicators. Frameworks for developing ecosystem health plans. Discussion of the principle of ‘carrying capacity’ and its use in conservation.
The effects of climate change on terrestrial ecosystems. Review of the natural and anthropogenic causes of climate changes. Projected effects on ecosystems using national and international examples. Prediction techniques and levels of uncertainty.

Teaching Methods:
Lectures, practicals, fieldwork.

Learning Outcomes:
On completion students will be able to:
1. Critically discuss and analyse a wide variety of key concepts of terrestrial conservation strategies.
2. Demonstrate a clear understanding of the conservation implications of various forms of agricultural practice.
3. Understand the implications of climate change for conservation of terrestrial ecosystems.

Assessment Requirements:
Final examination (3 hours) 50%
Continuous Assessment 50%


PH4S88 - Freshwater Conservation

Aims of the Module:
1. To provide advanced knowledge of freshwater ecology and conservation.
2. To provide appropriate practical skills in data collection and manipulation.

Synopsis of Module Content:
Upland streams and rivers. Freshwater biotopes. The physical, chemical and biological characteristics of rivers and lakes. River catchments, hydrological processes in rivers and lake dynamics. The freshwater biota of lentic and lotic waters: algae, macrophytes, invertebrates and vertebrates. Sources of food energy. Annual production. Effects of human activities on streams e.g. changes in land use, river modifications. Regulating reservoirs and acidification. Lowland rivers. Methods of measuring primary productivity and plant communities.
Modifications of flood plain ecosystems by drainage and river management. Protection of rivers, river conservation and assessment of conservation potential. Methods of assessment of pollution, legislation and public participation.
Lentic habitats. Key nutrients and nutrient limitations. Models of lake productivity. Eutrophication and acidification of lakes and their treatment.
Fish production.

Teaching Methods:
Lectures, Practicals.

Learning Outcomes:
On completion students will be able to:
1. Apply advanced concepts in freshwater ecology and ecosystem dynamics to practical problems of conservation biology.
2. Analyse the physical, chemical and biological factors operating in freshwater habitats.
3. Investigate and analyse a range of fresh-water plant and animal communities.

Assessment Requirements:
Final examination (3 hours) 50%
Continuous Assessment 50%


PH4S89 - Environmental Pollution Management

Aims of the Module:
1. To provide advanced knowledge of the range, limitation and application of analytical techniques in the determination of pollutant levels.
2. To enable students to make informed judgements concerning the economic and environmental advantages and disadvantages of waste management.

Synopsis of Module Content:
Validity of analytical measurements, quality control and assurance. Analysis from the viewpoint of the consumer in conservation. Characteristics of analytical measurements. Choice of analytical methods. Quality and proficiency testing. Effect of errors on environmental models. Design of monitoring programmes.
Chemical Pollution Analysis. Review of the various classes of EPA Priority Pollutant – structure, source and ecological effect. Strategy of sample analysis based on matrix type and physical properties of pollutant- sampling, sample preparation, clean-up and final analysis. Analytical cases studies e.g. pesticides in food, carcinogens in the working environment, tracking the source of an oil spill. The use of bioremediation in the treatment of hydrocarbon pollution.
A holistic approach to the effectiveness of wastewater treatment process in solving pollution of water resources will be taken. The fundamental principals of operation and performance of physical, chemical and biological wastewater treatment processes will be covered and the intrinsic role in the conservation and protection of water resources.
Characterisation of pollution problems and the legal limits associated with wastewater will be addressed and how the various treatment processes are suited to removal of the particular pollution problem. Case studies of a variety of waste discharges will be discussed in relation to their composition, consent limits and effect on wastewater treatment plant design.
Integrated waste management and the waste hierarchy. Re-use, minimization, recycling, energy production and disposal. Emphasis is placed on disposal as the primary means of waste treatment in the UK.
Landfilling. Design and operation. Environmental problems associated with landfills and methods of control. Includes landfill gas and leachate. Co-disposal of hazardous wastes. Behavior of hazardous waste in landfills. Landfill restoration.
Incineration. Types of incinerators and operation of same. Gas cleaning. Incineration of PCBs.
Other methods of disposal/recovery. Chemical methods-Neutralization, precipitation, (chemical) oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis, ion exchange, pyrolysis, molten salt incineration, plasma arc, gasification. Physical methods-Evaporation, distillation, settlement, filtration, reverse osmosis, centrifugation, adsorption, flotation, solidification, underground disposal.
Disposal strategies for nuclear waste.

Teaching Methods:
Lectures, Practicals.

Learning Outcomes:
After successfully studying this module, students will be able to:
1. Critically assess the features and limitations of waste hierarchy and evaluated alternative options to landfill and incineration.
2. Appreciate the applications of analytical measurements in environmental monitoring.
3. Evaluate strategies for wastewater treatment and management.

Assessment Requirements:
Continuous assessment 100%


PH4S90 - Tropical Environmental Field Ecology

Aims of the Module:
This module is an optional field course that will be run only if sufficient students are available. It will provide an introduction to the study of a range of major tropical ecosystems, use various advanced field techniques and give experience in the identification of a range of tropical plant and animal taxa.

Synopsis of Module Content:
Investigate and implement advanced methods for the measurement of rainforest structure and physiogamy
Analyse direct and indirect methods for the identification and estimation of the animal abundance, including those for mammals, reptiles, birds and invertebrates.
Investigation of ecological changes along environmental gradients in selected systems such rainforest, mangrove, coral reefs, rivers and lakes and their implications for management.

Teaching Methods:
The teaching is based on a 10-day field course and a series of lectures that gives students first hand experience of tropical ecosystems and an introduction to their structure and function. The course is designed to teach students how to observe the variety of tropical life and to consider the fundamental ecological processes in various ecosystems. Students will be introduced to key advanced practical ecological skills. The student’s ability to manage self and to act appropriately will be developed by undertaking group activities and by managing their time and performance in carrying out fieldwork projects in co-operation with others.
Tutorials will be arranged following the field course to discuss results, problems, reports and presentations. Each student will present the results of their project as a seminar.
A field based project based on experiments undertaken during the course will be submitted at the end of the field visit.

Learning Outcomes:
On completing this module students will be able to:
1. Identify key ecological processes in selected tropical ecosystems.
2. Produce forest profiles and measure changes along ecological gradients.
3. Observe and identify species from a range of tropical plant and animal taxa.
4. Write a coherent account of an investigation drawing valid conclusions based on the evidence obtained and make an oral presentation of the information to others.

Assessment Requirements:
Coursework 100%


PH4T86 - MSC Project

Aims of the Module:
The aims of this module are to enable students to:
1. Study in depth a relevant topic of their choice.
2. Assess and evaluate the value and relevance of primary and secondary data.
3. Integrate knowledge and skills developed in previous modules and apply them to novel and complex situations.
4. Present a Project report of a standard expected of an MSc. level student.

Synopsis of Module Content:
The MSc. project involves the student in detailed research and technical report writing about a specific subject area. It aims to promote experience in information retrieval, develop skills in evaluating and interpreting data form dispersed sources, and develop a critical approach to data evaluation, and produce balanced conclusions. The results of the investigation are written up and presented as a technical report. Student-led learning and implementation is at the centre of this module. While guidance is available when requested, the students will be encouraged to explore their own interests in a manner appropriate for MSc. study.

Important aspects will include:
Selection of a suitable area for research: Verbal dialogue with lecturer and organisation concerned. Undertaken background reading into chosen area. Undertaken a feasibility study.
Production of an introduction: providing reasons for studying the subject area. General introduction to the subject area provides a background to the topic studied. The aims of the project are understood. Limitations are presented.
Undertake a literature review: Relevant information is selected and included in the review. Information sources covering the scope of the project is evaluated. Information is compiled, selected, interpreted and summarised in student’s own words.
Use of appropriate methodology/practical skills: Methodology is presented and suitable methods are chosen. Details of equipment/survey techniques are clearly outlined.
Presentation of results: Clearly presented and explained. Use of a variety of appropriate display techniques. Use of Information Technology.
Discussion and conclusions: Major aspects of the project are discussed including limitations. Summary data is presented. Relevant conclusions are made. A comprehensive bibliography is presented.

Teaching Methods:
Direct supervision, tutorials, fieldwork. This module is very much student centered and the student is expected to liaise and or work with external agencies.

Learning Outcomes
By the end of the module the student will be able to:
1. Undertake an extensive literature survey into a specific area identifying strengths and weaknesses of previous work.
2. Select appropriate methodologies and techniques to investigate complex problems.
3. Demonstrate improved practical skills in areas such as laboratory procedures and data manipulation.
4. Conduct a critical in-depth analysis of a complex problem or situation, generating appropriate conclusions and/or recommendations.

Assessment Requirements:
Coursework (written Dissertation) 80%
Presentation and oral defence 20%